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The 1619 Project
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
A dramatic expansion of a groundbreaking work of journalism, The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story offers a profoundly revealing vision of the American past and present. In late August 1619, a ship arrived in the British colony of Virginia bearing a cargo of twenty to thirty enslaved people from Africa. Their arrival led to the barbaric and unprecedented system of American chattel slavery that would last for the next 250 years. This is sometimes referred to as the countrys original sin, but it is more than that: It is the source of so much that still defines the United States. The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story builds on one of the most consequential journalistic events of recent years: The New York Times Magazines award-winning 1619 Project, which reframed our understanding of American history by placing slavery and its continuing legacy at the center of our national narrative. This new book substantially expands on the original 1619 Project, weaving together eighteen essays that explore the legacy of slavery in present-day America with thirty-six poems and works of fiction that illuminate key moments of oppression, struggle, and resistance. The essays show how the inheritance of 1619 reaches into every part of contemporary American society, from politics, music, diet, traffic, and citizenship to capitalism, religion, and our democracy itself. This legacy can be seen in the way we tell stories, the way we teach our children, and the way we remember. Together, the elements of the book reveal a new origin story for the United States, one that helps explain not only the persistence of anti-Black racism and inequality in American life today, but also the roots of what makes the country unique. The book also features a significant elaboration of the original projects Pulitzer Prizewinning lead essay, by Nikole Hannah-Jones, on how the struggles of Black Americans have expanded democracy for all Americans, as well as two original pieces from Hannah-Jones, one of which makes a profound case for reparative solutions to this legacy of injustice. This is a book that speaks directly to our current moment, contextualizing the systems of race and caste within which we operate today. It reveals long-glossed-over truths around our nations founding and constructionand the way that the legacy of slavery did not end with emancipation, but continues to shape contemporary American life.
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TrishB
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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#kindledaily
Have been really interested in peoples posts about this one, so grabbed the 99p bargain 😁

Cinfhen Wow!!!! That‘s a ridiculous price!!! Well done 🤓 1w
jenniferw88 Ok... lesson learnt! Don't just check the daily deals Jenny! 😂😂😂 1w
TrishB @Cinfhen it‘s a bargain 👍🏻 1w
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TrishB @jenniferw88 there is also an offers list that changes every month- I don‘t always check it all but was browsing today! 1w
jenniferw88 @TrishB 😊 I usually check that at the beginning of the month... maybe I should do it mid-way as well! 1w
Tamra I really want to read this one, but it‘s not on sale in the US. Hurry up and wait…… 1w
TrishB @Tamra 🤞🏻🤞🏻 1w
arlenefinnigan I misread this as 'The 1690 project' and nearly exploded. 1w
TrishB @arlenefinnigan definitely not! Though probably as explosive! 1w
70 likes9 comments
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staci.reads
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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This essay is the mic drop 🎤 moment in the book for me. I don't know if it is because she made the best case I've read for reparations or if the power of the essay comes from acting as the culmination of the other pieces, or maybe both, but either way, it packed a punch.
Feel free to comment on the final essay or the book as a whole in this thread. As I said in my review, I want to put this book in everyone's hands. #1619GroupRead

ChaoticMissAdventures I think learning so much from the other essays really sets the groundwork for people to be open to hearing what NHB has to say here. Add to that the way she lays it all out and you have an incredibly convincing argument (unless the reader is just a racist). 2w
staci.reads @ChaoticMissAdventures agreed! It felt like it all built up to her essay, especially the essay about inheritance. 1w
36 likes4 comments
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BarbaraTheBibliophage
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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Pickpick

It‘s difficult to capture the gravity of these essays in a review, especially a short one. Suffice it to say, this book is a must read for everyone. Plow through it or take it small bites. Whatever works. Just do it.

And many thanks to @4thhouseontheleft and @staci.reads for their ongoing discussion topics here. I didn‘t always stay on target, but it helped to see others on the path with me. 💙

Full review https://www.TheBibliophage.com

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staci.reads
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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Pickpick

I've been sitting on this one for a couple days trying to figure out an appropriate a way to review it. All I can come up with is, Wow.
I want to put this in the hands every person I know. I am glad to have read this doing a slow read for the #1619GroupRead so I could digest and process it all. It's a master class in under 600 pages.

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staci.reads
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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#1619GroupRead Ibram Kendi pushes our discomfort in powerful ways in this essay. He strips away the crutch of pointing to "evidence" of racial progress as proof our nation is moving in the right way.
Sorry for the delayed post. Was celebrating Mother's Day and moving my son to his first apartment ?

28 likes2 comments
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staci.reads
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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#1619GroupRead Another short essay this week, but feel free to also reflect on the supplemental pieces "Rainbows Aren't Real, Are They?" Kiese Laymon's short memoir on hearing Jesse Jackson speak of The Rainbow Coalition, and Gregory Pardlo's poem about the 1985 bombing of the MOVE rowhouse in Philadelphia. Only two chapters left to reach the end of this powerful book.

staci.reads I had to dive in a little more after reading the poem about the police standoff with MOVE because, once again, it was history I had never heard. The story is appalling, including how the aftermath amd remains were handled. Here's a New Yorker article that tells much more for anyone interested https://www.newyorker.com/news/essay/saying-her-name 4w
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MallenNC I had only a surface awareness of the MOVE bombing so I‘ll definitely read the piece you shared. The writer of the New Yorker article wrote a great book about the Attica prison riots. 4w
MallenNC My thought on the Traffic chapter was that it was a very clear example of how decisions driven by racism hurt everyone. The traffic and transportation in Atlanta are such huge headaches and it didn‘t have to be that way. Also building road projects through Black neighborhoods. That happened here in N.C. when Durham‘s Black Wall Street was destroyed by a new freeway. This chapter gave me a lot to think about. 4w
staci.reads @MallenNC Me too. I just commented on the #shesaid post about how Garza shared that the San Francisco subway doesn't serve Bayfield Hunter's Point and cuts members of that community off from job possibilities. It reminded me of "Traffic" and the Atlanta example. 4w
ChaoticMissAdventures I had never heard of the MOVE bombing and as I often do I got angry that these histories have to be so searched for, for many Americans. We can never understand our history 200 years ago or 50 unless we understand what happened and why. 4w
ChaoticMissAdventures Traffic, while I knew about these topics it is always good to be reminded. A city in Kansas just passed a no cohabitation bill where no more than 3 unrelated adults cannot live together. So many blatant laws passed to keep people from getting ahead. A great book for further reading 4w
staci.reads @ChaoticMissAdventures I had not heard about the cohabitation bill...unbelievable. I've heard great things about The Color of Law. It's on my tbr! 4w
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JenReadsAlot
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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Pickpick

Fantastic book - recommended to all.

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Cortg
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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Pickpick

Whew. This audiobook was like taking a whole college semester course on CRT. I will say it was extremely well done! I don‘t usually buy books but I‘m going to pick this up at a black owned book store in Baltimore in the near future and read through the chapters/essays/stories at a slower pace. So much to take in.

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Bookish_Gal
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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Pickpick

This stuck with me most out of this entire book of short essays, poems and historical contexts. There‘s a lot to digest here. This is not an “alternative history”, but a history that‘s been buried so deep. Very eye-opening. Wide expanse of information through many well known themes (religion, democracy, etc.) that take you through 400s yr since slavery (actually) came to America. Through many varying views. Required college read
#1619GroupRead

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staci.reads
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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A short essay this week with ties to a few previous essays. #1619GroupRead we're down to three more essay after this week. It's been a powerful journey, and I'm looking forward to seeing which essays close it out.

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JenReadsAlot
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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1. I miss my book club we fell apart during covid.
2. I really don't do this 🤷‍♀️
3. Tagged as well as Saving Justice and Fascism
Thanks for the tag @TheSpineView and @Kshakal
@Eggs #wondrouswednesday

Eggs Thanks for joining in! 1mo
TheSpineView You're welcome! 1mo
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staci.reads
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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MallenNC This chapter reminded me of a section in A Little Devil in America, which also talked about minstrel shows. (He also talked about Whitney Houston, who is mentioned here too.) I thought this chapter made a strong point about white audiences wanting Black music but without rewarding Black artists. Minstrel shows are an extreme example of that. 1mo
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staci.reads @MallenNC Thanks for the book reference. I just added it to my tbr list. It looks like it's had great reviews! 1mo
staci.reads @MallenNC This one was one of my favorite essays, so I'm looking forward to diving in more deeply. Your comment reminded me of the line in the essay "Loving Black culture has never demanded a corresponding love of Black people." 1mo
MallenNC @staci.reads I liked this one a lot too. I had just listened to Questlove‘s book, Music is History, so the timing of it was good. 1mo
34 likes6 comments
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Megabooks
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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Pickpick

I‘m so glad I read this, and it should be required of every American. It provides a perspective on the history of America and the integral part Black people played in the founding ideals of this country and how we still fall short on extending them equality. I recommend not reading more than an essay or two a week to give each the reflection they deserve. 5⭐️

PS I locked myself out while taking this picture. 🤦🏻‍♀️

AmyG Oy. Hope you got back in easily. Thanks for the rec to read an essay and put down for a bit. (edited) 1mo
REPollock I‘m reading this right now and that‘s exactly how I‘m doing it, unless I had a time spaced out over several days between each. I agree, it should be required reading. 1mo
Megabooks @AmyG I had to wake someone up, but fortunately I got back in. 😂 this is definitely one worth reading! 1mo
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Megabooks @REPollock it‘s a lot to digest, but I‘m glad you‘re finding it thought provoking too. 1mo
Readergrrl I agree about allowing time to absorb the content as you read. Powerful stuff!! 1mo
Readergrrl It makes me sad to think that simply mentioning this book would get me fired in a different state. 1mo
Cinfhen Great review 🤓 1mo
Megabooks @Readergrrl it makes me sad as well. I hate hearing the negative moniker “critical race theory.” It is history. The history we should all know. 1mo
Megabooks @Cinfhen thanks! 1mo
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staci.reads
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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#1619GroupRead This chapter took a look at the importance of Black churches in the struggle against oppression. Butler says "The style of the Black church that developed following the Great Awakening and in the antebellum period as one of prophetic witness to the moral outrage of racism in America. It was the rhetoric of dissent..." Butler also shows how this has historically made Black churches targets for violence.

Megabooks I‘m planning on a reread of this, which I think would be a good “going deeper” read. 2mo
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Singout I haven‘t read every chapter of this book, but made time for this one because of my interest in faith and justice, and liberation theology. It does an amazing job of covering the long and complex history, much of which I didn‘t know, about the intersections and tensions. I found the passages about what was happening in the 60s and 70s particularly interesting, and the leadership of the church in the late 1700s. The poem was gut wrenching. 1mo
staci.reads @Megabooks Thanks for sharing that rec! 1mo
staci.reads @Singout I also found it interesting to read about the crisis of conscience churches faced during that time. 1mo
29 likes6 comments
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Brooke_H
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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Pickpick

Engaging history told through historical vignettes, poems, short fiction, and personal and scholarly essays. I didn‘t realize how much I didn‘t know about this period of American history, and I learned so much about how it has impacted not only US history, but also current events.

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Nathan_Opland-Dobs
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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Pickpick

✊🏼

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staci.reads
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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#1619GroupRead
Lots to unpack in this short essay. Also interesting to read at the same time I was reading The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks - so many connections.

staci.reads This was the first time I had come across the term "weathering" in this context. We know what chronic stress does to the body, so I'd be interested to learn more about Professor Geronimus's research. 2mo
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TheBookHippie @staci.reads I read several articles about this underlying pervasive stress on the bodies of Black and Brown people and why the pandemic hit that community so hard. Several layering reasons but all true and so gut wrenching to me. 2mo
MallenNC I remembered reading about Dr. Moore‘s story from earlier in the pandemic. It was infuriating that she was ignored and so sad that she knew what was likely to happen. I thought the refrain of “This is how Black people get killed” was very powerful. 2mo
MallenNC Last year I read this memoir of a Black doctor about his medical training at Duke. It included some of the info in this chapter also. 2mo
BarbaraTheBibliophage There are so many good books for more reading on this topic. I appreciated the overview and the depth of this essay. I‘m curious about what will be in the upcoming chapter Healthcare. 2mo
ravenlee @staci.reads I‘ve fallen behind with the readings and am unlikely to catch up anytime soon. I‘m sorry to leave, but can you take me off the tag list? I‘ll read on my own until/unless I can get back with the group. Thanks! 2mo
staci.reads @ravenlee no worries - there's always too much to read and too little time! I've removed you from the list. 2mo
ravenlee Thanks - life is constantly getting in the way of reading! 2mo
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Singout
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company

“The education of his children and the success of his thrift seem to be the sole offence of the Negro,” Governor Dorsey said…Today Black Americans far removed from slavery and Jim Crow continue to be handed the economic misfortune of their forebears.

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staci.reads
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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#1619GroupRead Another powerful essay showing the long reach of history.

Singout This was excellent: a gut wrenching concrete story interspersed with broader political history and analysis. I think inheritance is a factor in marginalization that isn‘t discussed as much as access to employment or education: this essay really did a lot to clearly portray its impact. 2mo
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staci.reads
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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This chapter's essay was by Bryan Stevenson, the author of Just Mercy. It's been on my tbr for a long time, but I haven't read it yet.. Wondering if anyone who has read it has connections to make. #1619GroupRead @4thhouseontheleft

Riveted_Reader_Melissa I have not read it yet either… but I thought about another book I‘d read 2mo
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JenReadsAlot It is a great book. 2mo
MallenNC I‘m behind on 1619 Project, and plan to catch up this week. But I had to chime in about Just Mercy. I cannot recommend it enough. It is so good, while of course also being upsetting because of the unfairness it depicts. It was eye opening for me. Bryan Stevenson really proves how unjust the US justice system is. I think he deserves the Nobel Peace Prize for his work with the Equal Justice Initiative. 2mo
ChaoticMissAdventures Bryan Stevenson is amazing and I was so excited to see his work here. If you have read his amazing work before this is a bit deeper dive into how slavery plays a part. It is infuriating and so obvious once you think about it. His book has led me down a path of prison abolition 2mo
BarbaraTheBibliophage I‘m always struck by the historical meaning of riot and mob being originally connected with lynching and with events like the Greenwood massacre. It may be semantics, but incorrectly calling a protest or uprising a riot is done by conservatives all the time. And I honestly don‘t think they understand the history behind who originated riots and why. And the Wilmington story was a new one to me. Wowza. 2mo
staci.reads @Riveted_Reader_Melissa that one has also been on my tbr for a while. 2mo
staci.reads @MallenNC high praise! I'll need to move it up on my list! 2mo
staci.reads @BarbaraTheBibliophage Wilmington was new to me as well. I did some quick research after reading that chapter and found the Wilmington Insurrection, The Wilmington Massacre, and the Wilmington Coup. Also the first time I had heard of the North Carolina Fusionists. Reconstruction was such a small blip in the history I learned. 2mo
ravenlee For such a short chapter, this packed a punch. I was appalled at the sentencing of children to life in prison (I‘m more open to it for murder convictions, but case-by-case). I really need to read more about the prison and legal systems, because the little I know is disturbing. The racial bias in policing and incarceration is incredible, yet so very visible. Yet politicians don‘t want to be “soft on crime” so nothing gets better. 2mo
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REPollock
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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The book club at work is reading this for our first pick! Looking forward to learning.

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staci.reads
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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I'm posting a discussion prompt from chapter 9 today to get us caught up. I'll post a question or 2 from chapter 10 on Sunday. I'm tagging everyone who was on the last post from @4thhouseontheleft . If anyone wants removed, let me know. #1619groupread

Butterfinger Thank you for doing this. 2mo
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staci.reads The contrast she showed between George Zimmermann and Jessie Murray stood put for me as well as the line "White people continue to use self-defense laws to protect themselves from perceived harm from African Americans; Black people often cannot use self-defense to protect themselves from actual harm by white people." One more example of how "citizenship" does not mean the same to everyone. 2mo
Kdgordon88 I‘m behind but will try to get caught up by Sunday. 2mo
BarbaraTheBibliophage I‘m also behind but trying to catch up! 2mo
staci.reads @Butterfinger You're welcome 🙂 2mo
4thhouseontheleft Thank you so much for doing this! 2mo
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4thhouseontheleft
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company

Hey #1619GroupRead folks! I‘m looking for someone who would be interested in taking over the rest of the weekly discussions.

I‘m officially a Covid long hauler, and am still struggling with getting headaches and fatigue under control. Unfortunately my doctor suggested pause all of my non-essential activities for now. 😔

TheBookHippie ☹️ take care of you! Rest. 3mo
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IndoorDame I‘m so sorry to hear that! I have CFS/ME which has very similar symptoms, so if you ever need some support feel free to reach out 💙 3mo
Liz_M Oh no, I am so sorry to hear you are struggling with long covid. Please rest and take care of your self. 3mo
marleed Oh no. I‘m so sorry. I‘m sending positive thoughts to the universe that Covid is fully arrested for you. 3mo
Kdgordon88 Ugh! Take good care. Sending healing thoughts your way. 3mo
Lcsmcat I‘m so sorry! Focus on resting and healing. 3mo
squirrelbrain Sorry to hear you‘re feeling so poorly. Sending hugs. 3mo
Librariana So very sorry to learn that COVID has affected you this way 😔 Hope you're able to rest as much as you can! 3mo
Singout I‘m so very sorry to hear that. I too have ME and can imagine what you are going through. I‘m sorry that I‘m not able to take on the facilitation. 3mo
Catsandbooks I'm sorry to hear you're still not feeling well. Take care of yourself! 3mo
PurpleyPumpkin I am so sorry to hear that you're still not well. Take care of yourself and I hope you feel much better soon! 💜 3mo
Bookzombie I‘m so sorry that you are still struggling. I hope this ends soon. Sending 💕 3mo
ncsufoxes I‘m so sorry to hear that you‘re still not feeling well. I hope that it gets better soon. I wish I could help out & lead the discussion but I‘m too busy between school & now preparing to move cross country. Keep doing what you need to do to feel better ❤️ 3mo
staci.reads I'm so sorry to hear the symptoms are hanging on 😔. I can't imagine how frustrating it must be. I would consider taking over facilitation, but I would need people to be patient if it's inconsistent. Work gets crazy sometimes, and keeps me from checking in here for days at a time. Would you have materials to share? If not, that's ok too. 3mo
Butterfinger @staci.reads I was going to say something similar. I will volunteer, but know it will not be as deep as @4thhouseontheleft I will be thinking of you. @staci.reads whatever and whenever you post will be okay. 3mo
ravenlee I hope your symptoms improve. I think I need to back out from the group read anyway, and I‘m sorry for it. I plan to continue reading as I‘m able, but I can‘t maintain my group read commitments at the moment. Life has gotten in the way of my reading! 😫 2mo
Chrissyreadit I hope you continue to heal. I‘m still having an impact from COVID as well, and acupuncture and Chinese herbs have been one of my go to resources. I‘m hopeful that you will feel better. 2mo
4thhouseontheleft @staci.reads @Butterfinger I appreciate this so much! Here are some materials I have been using: https://www.penguinrandomhouse.com/books/658295/the-1619-project-by-created-by-n... 2mo
4thhouseontheleft @Chrissyreadit I got a Vitamin B12 injection this week and that seems to be helping with the fatigue! I hope acupuncture is helping you. 💞 (edited) 2mo
staci.reads @4thhouseontheleft Thank you for sharing these links. I am so glad you are finding a little help for the fatigue. I've had covid twice, the first time a year and a half ago, pre vaccine. The fatigue hung on for months. I feel for you 💔. Take good care of yourself and don't feel bad for getting tons of rest. 2mo
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Singout
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company

There is some comfort, I think, in attributing the sheer brutality of slavery to dumb racism, the imagined pain being afflicted somewhat at random doled out by a stereotypical poor white Southerner full of racist hate…But it wasn‘t so much the rage of the poor white Southerner as the greed of the rich white planter that drove the lash. The violence was neither arbitrary nor gratuitous, it was a rational part of the plantation‘s design.

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Singout
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company

By the eve of the Civil War…the combined value of enslaved people exceeded that of all the railroads and factories in the nation.

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CallMeIshmael
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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I‘m Nashville for a dance competition and made some time to hit a local bookstore

britt_brooke I‘m SO happy you stopped by The Bookshop! It‘s such a happy little space. Hope y‘all had fun in Nashville. 2mo
Nute All readers understand the desire to visit the local bookstores when in a different city/town for whatever reason. I hope that you enjoyed yourself!🙂 3w
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ChaoticMissAdventures
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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Pickpick

I didn't get to participate in the discussion as much as I would have liked, work has been busy. But this book is outstanding. Should be required reading for anyone in the States or interested in US history. The way it moves from poetry, to essays, to short stories gives the many topics distinct voices and complexity - informing with never being dry.

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4thhouseontheleft
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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IndoorDame It especially struck me in this chapter where it said that Southern parents tended to give their daughters more enslaved hands than property, so those women‘s economic independence was tied to valuing white property over black freedom. That seems like exactly the kind of rationale that survives to this day to justify gross inequities in our society. 3mo
LeahBergen Happy Birthday!! ❤️❤️ 3mo
Singout I posted some of the quotes that struck me: how vast the cotton industry was and how entrenched enslavement was in it. I‘m just getting to the part about unionization and I‘m finding the idea of how racist exclusivism split the potential for a much stronger united workers movement really fascinating. 3mo
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ChaoticMissAdventures
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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#readingbracket #nonfiction @chasjjlee

I haven't participated as much as I had liked on the discussion of this book. But wow is it amazing, and everyone in the States should read it.

4thhouseontheleft My Jan/Feb bracket would look identical to yours! 🙂 3mo
ChaoticMissAdventures @4thhouseontheleft amazing!! They are both fantastic 😍 3mo
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rachelm
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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Pt 1 of reading wrap for the month.
5⭐️ reads: Go Home Ricky! A Duke By Default, The 1619 Project, Bombshell, The Sparrow

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4thhouseontheleft
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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Condensing Chapter 6 & 7 into one week, so there will be a lot of discussion questions posted this week! #1619GroupRead

Key Terms: 2008 Economic Crisis, Assets, Capitalism, Collateralized Debt Obligations (CDOs), Cotton Gin, Industrial Revolution, Labor Union, Louisiana Purchase, Mortgage, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Panic of 1837, Stock Market Crash of 1929, Wall Street, Citizens United v. FEC

MallenNC I was really struck by the passage in Chapter 6 that said the U.S. is the only longstanding democracy that has four veto points to block legislation. It said, “the U.S. government is characterized by political inaction, and is that way by design.“ Those veto points were built in to protect slavery as an institution. 3mo
MallenNC I also listened to the podcast episode for this chapter, and it emphasized that slavery and the cotton industry were considered “too big to fail“ and compared that with the banking crisis in the 2000s. 3mo
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4thhouseontheleft
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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Hey #1619GroupRead friends, sorry I have been AWOL this week! If it‘s okay with everyone, I am going to combine Chapters 6 & 7 together over the next week to CAT-ch up. 😽

I‘m still dealing with lingering fatigue post-Covid, so #HelloKtty looks like how I‘ve felt all week. #catsofLitsy

DaveGreen7777 Hope you feel much better soon! 3mo
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AmyG Feel better. 3mo
PurpleyPumpkin No worries at all! Take care. 💜 3mo
megnews No problem. I‘m behind. Will give me a chance to catch up. Feel better! 3mo
Chrissyreadit Oh my friend!!! I‘m in the same boat ❤️ I hope you find your energy again. I‘m behind in all my reading from exhaustion. So I am hoping to “catch up” soon. I hate COVID so much. Not quite as much as I hate Trump and his bestie Putin though since they are evil and a virus just is….. 3mo
ravenlee Works for me. I hope you feel better soon! 3mo
BarbaraTheBibliophage Healing and resting is first priority. The book / buddy read is all adjustable. Sending you hugs and feel better vibes! 🤗🤗 3mo
Liz_M Sounds like a good idea! I have been pretty terrible with keeping up and have no idea what chapter I should be reading this week. I hope you get your energy back soon! 3mo
MallenNC I hope you feel better soon! 3mo
IndoorDame Definitely rest as much as possible. I hope you start feeling better soon! 3mo
Kdgordon88 Take good care. The book will wait. 3mo
4thhouseontheleft @Chrissyreadit I‘m so sorry you‘re in the same boat. I just spent the morning running errands and I‘m SO fatigued. I‘m one month post Covid, how far out are you? 3mo
4thhouseontheleft @BarbaraTheBibliophage Thanks! When I am reading I can only really handle light stuff right now, and I hate to do heavier books a disservice by reading them when I‘m struggling with retention and focus. 3mo
4thhouseontheleft @DaveGreen7777 @AmyG @PurpleyPumpkin @megnews @ravenlee @liz_m @MallenNC @IndoorDame @Kdgordon88 Thank you so much for understanding! I will be posting a discussion question later today. (edited) 3mo
BarbaraTheBibliophage @4thhouseontheleft I totally understand! Same thing happens to me when life is stressful. I‘m trying overly hard to get an ARC done that publishes on Tuesday. But it‘s been stressful this week and the book is SO much harder! 3mo
Chrissyreadit Today is 4 weeks from onset of symptoms. I was very sick for two weeks. I just returned to work this week, and spend all my other time laying down. 3mo
Catsandbooks No worries at all!! I'm still behind as life has just been super stressful lately and it's hard to read a heavy topic when you're already having a hard time. I'm hoping March will be better and I'll be able to get back on track. Hope you feel better! ❤️ 3mo
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JenReadsAlot
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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Happy #caturday littens! Sitting down with this weeks section of tagged book. #catsoflitsy

kspenmoll Tooo cute!!! 3mo
SRWCF What a sweet face! 3mo
Leftcoastzen Awwww😻 3mo
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Alwaysbeenaloverofbooks Awwwww 🐈 3mo
EvieBee What a cutie! 3mo
RaeLovesToRead Nyaaaawww!!!!! Hello gorgeous! 👋😄❤❤❤ 3mo
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4thhouseontheleft
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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ravenlee We definitely see the history of the US making treaties and repeatedly breaking them, so that the Native Nations have no reasonable expectation of any future treaties being upheld. Yet they are forced to negotiate and renegotiate, because what alternative is there? Treat with an unreliable nation or face annihilation. 3mo
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ravenlee Also, the “one drop” rule was mentioned in this section, which I‘ve seen discussed elsewhere. One drop of Black blood is enough to condemn a person to enslavement and discrimination, yet when we start to see benefits (however limited) to Native affiliation, purity of Native blood becomes the standard required to partake. One drop of indigenous blood isn‘t enough, yet one of Black is too much. 3mo
ncsufoxes We have continued to see so many issues today from dispossession that the government created & still refuse to correct to this day. We see the continued fights that Indigenous people have to do to gain back land or recognition of their tribes, the right to do what they want with their land. The struggles that many can face with addiction or alcoholism due to the circumstances the government has created. Not to mention the forced schooling and 3mo
ncsufoxes conversions that we forced on many & the denial of getting to speak their own language or acknowledgment of their families history. Many are still dealing with this inter generational trauma that our own government barely acknowledges. This all goes back to when the government was pitting Indigenous people against enslaved people against each other for their benefit. 3mo
IndoorDame I was unaware of the depth of connection between enslaved peoples and native peoples (though it makes perfect sense). It must have been particularly devastating to have found an allay in a similar situation and to then have those doors closed to you for opportunist reasons. I can‘t really imagine how preset day individuals with both black and native ancestry reconcile their own complex histories. 3mo
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4thhouseontheleft
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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Has anyone else read A Peoples' Indigenous History of the United States? That book definitely came to mind while I was reading this chapter, and I highly recommend it!

#1619GroupRead

Bookish_Gal Interested now in that book. This chapter threw me for a loop. I had no idea on their shared histories. From having enslaved people to prove their better to then being enslaved themselves. Never put them together. Was fascinated by how they developed those shared stories and cultural acts - the rabbit and weaving baskets. I grew up liking Native Americans, so now I want to dig deeper 3mo
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ravenlee This chapter reminded me of an essay in the book I read yesterday. Gordon-Reed wrote about feeling like Black and Native peoples seemed like natural allies but was discouraged to learn how relations actually developed. It seems “the enemy of my enemy is my friend” was a lot more intricate and complicated than it could have been. 3mo
ravenlee I found myself thinking that there‘s always an “other,” always another group that gets pushed down so one group can rise. I was also sickened by the “cultural change” required by the US, demanding the Nations give up traditional methods of living because the white, European, Christian, “civilized” way of life was so much better. (Cotton as a civilized crop - won‘t feed your people, will it?) 3mo
megnews I haven‘t but planning on it. Sorry I‘m a couple chapters behind on reading but plan to catch up soon. 3mo
ncsufoxes I haven‘t read it but it‘s one I want to get. 3mo
ncsufoxes I had no idea that the US government was making deals with Indigenous people to get them to grow crops that benefited the government & to also encourage them to have enslaved people. I knew about Andrew Jackson‘s campaign but did not know a lot about the Indian Removal Act (or how brutal it was). I get amazed with every chapter I read how much our government has messed with groups of people for such selfish purposes. I am trying to read & 3mo
ncsufoxes learn more about Native American history since I feel like I was never taught anything (well not the real and accurate truth). 3mo
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Addison_Reads
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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Pickpick

I tried to take my time with this book as much as I could, but since it was a library book I had to accelerate my reading of it a bit. I will be purchasing a copy for my shelves because this is an American history that should be read, taught, and talked about.

It's about time that we had a book like this although it saddens me that it took so long. I can only hope writing like this will finally bring the change we need. (More below)

Addison_Reads I loved the different authors for each section because they each had their own style and voice for the topic they were presenting. The fiction mixed in was powerful and several times I read those sections over to fully absorb them. I can't recommend this enough. 3mo
PaperbackPirate I have my copy on the tbr. Looking forward to reading it! 3mo
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Megabooks
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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Starting the next section. #1619GroupRead #lurker #BannedBook

JenReadsAlot I literally just sat down to read this section too! 3mo
RebL I was reading this very same chapter this morning. I can only read a section or two per day. 3mo
Megabooks @JenReadsAlot @RebL this book is excellent but gutting. Really glad to be reading it. 3mo
JenReadsAlot Agreed! 3mo
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4thhouseontheleft
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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I wanted to leave the discussion for this week's chapter open ended. What parts of the chapter struck you the most? #1619GroupRead

staci.reads I am continually blown away by the double standard when it comes to protest or revolution. "The glaring double standard reflects a centuries-old pattern in which black strivings for liberation have been demonized, criminalized, and subjected to persecution, while white people's demands for liberty are deemed rational, legitimate, and largely unthreatening." 3mo
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staci.reads These heroes of the slave rebellions who fought bravely against their oppressors aren't lauded in history books nor made into statues, yet they were fighting for not just their freedom, but their very lives. 3mo
staci.reads Also, just love that this chapter ended with one of my favorite quotes - James Baldwin's "Not everything that is faced can be changed, but nothing can be changed unless it is faced" 3mo
Butterfinger I was so angry while reading this chapter and things just kept popping up on how things were done to keep fear in the oppressed. The lynchings, the torture, the threats, and even when the Great Migration began, they had to sneak out of the South because the southern "employers" would find them. All because the white community, poor and rich, didn't want to let the people of color - Black, Indigenous, Hispanic have any control. As a child, when we were taught about Reconstruction 3mo
Butterfinger it was treated as a bad thing because the South was treated as an occupied country. I didn't learn about the representation in the government from the Black people. I'm so mad and frustrated. And parents are still having to instill fear in their children so they won't get killed by police. I don't have to do that with my daughters; I taught them to trust the police. Double standards, just like @staci.reads says. 3mo
ChaoticMissAdventures I was thinking a lot about Amir Locke while reading this, as we read and think about the things that the police get away with (only briefly touched on here). The fact that people can still ignore what is happening which so much information, it is not much different then ignoring the brutalities of 100 years ago. Still people are not doing enough to stand up for Black people. And to stand up against police brutality as it rages on - (edited) 3mo
ChaoticMissAdventures Looking @ how more people then ever stood up during the G. Floyd protests I felt was encouraging until looking at how fundamentally nothing has changed. Congress still cannot figure out how to pass laws against no knock warrants & brutal murders are still happening constantly by police or in the case of some like Lauren Fields-Smith the police are just ignoring. It feels like the whites who were doing the lynching have allowed police to take over 3mo
rjsthumbelina A few things really stood out to me: first, the idea of white fear being weaponized against the black community. I am from the St Louis area, and this is something I have been talking about in regards to police violence since Michael Brown's murder. The cop might be scared, but that does not authorize use of deadly force. Except, with the way they are trained - in their minds, it does. Another thing was that states had laws, even before the 🔽 3mo
rjsthumbelina ..."Slave Codes" that white people would be fined for not investigating a 'suspicious' black person. This makes so much sense in connection to our society today. Made me think about the white women who call the police over BBQing. Finally, the 'patrols' that were formed to chase down those that had escaped, and those being the predecessors of our police departments. It makes me feel so gross to know that we even still use the phrase ? 3mo
rjsthumbelina ...'state highway patrol.' It's not okay 3mo
4thhouseontheleft @staci.reads Yes! One question I considered posting was comparing the police and media response to BLM protests vs the Jan 6 riot. And everyone learns about Paul Revere and the Boston Tea Party, but not the rebellions of the enslaved against the oppressors. Just asked my daughter this question, and she has learned about Nat‘s rebellion this year(8th grade), but that was about it. 3mo
MallenNC @staci.reads I love that James Baldwin quote too and think about it a lot when people want to hide the truths of history (and the present). 3mo
MallenNC This chapter really made it clear how much white fear has shaped law enforcement and even interaction between (non law enforcement) people and how much that fear is still weaponized. I want to read The New Jim Crow by the author of this chapter. 3mo
ncsufoxes Every chapter I read just peels back more layers of our country and how so many fundamentals have not changed. The double standard is beyond frustrating but so much a part of our society. The fear that people instill to this day in their kids of other races is sad. I don‘t know when it will ever stop because there are still so many communities that still perpetuate negative stereotypes. Plus our laws and lawmakers do not work to change laws that 3mo
ncsufoxes Would be beneficial to so many communities. I would like to think people are naïve (lawmakers) but we know that they clearly aren‘t as they work to continue to redraw district lines to suppress black votes. Every chapter just makes me frustrated but also explains so much about what we see happening. I‘m expanding upon what I‘ve been learning the last few years but still know that I have barely scratched the surface. The James Baldwin quotes is 3mo
ncsufoxes One of my favorites. This chapter also makes me think a lot about Kimberlé Crenshaw‘s Ted Talk, which is fabulous but the video at the end is so heartbreaking. I feel like I could go on endlessly about my thoughts & frustrations. 3mo
IndoorDame I feel frustrated at the prospect of making meaningful change in the problems that plague us most today when I think that after 100 years of trying we still even haven‘t managed to pass anti-lynching legislation in this country. Is it really any wonder police feel free to behave so abhorrently? 3mo
40 likes19 comments
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4thhouseontheleft
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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Again, a bit late with posting discussion questions this week! I'm hoping to catch up on my chapter reading today.

Key Names, Dates, and Terms: 1739 Stono Rebellion, Haitian Revolution, Toussaint Louverture, Nat Turner‘s Rebellion, Freedmen‘s Bureau, 15th Amendment, COINTELPRO

Keep recent events in mind, like last week's police shooting of Amir Locke in Minneapolis and the federal trial of Minneapolis officers involved in George Floyd's death.

megnews Still need to read the chapter. In training this week. But hope to catch up soon. 4mo
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ravenlee Also the continuation of the trial of Ahmaud Arbery‘s murderers for federal hate crimes. 4mo
ravenlee This brought to mind the idea that Black people, when confronted by angry police officers, are responsible for staying calm and trying to deescalate the situation, usually with a gun in their face, and if they don‘t and the officer overreacts, it‘s “well, he/she should have followed directions, that officer was afraid for his life, oopsie, their fault.” 4mo
Bookish_Gal @ravenlee That was what I thought of first. If they act scared, they appear as a threat. It hurts hearing some of these videos where they‘re literally asking for their mommas. And nothing changes. Fear is a powerful construct. 4mo
MallenNC @ravenlee I thought about that while reading too. It continues to be the Black person‘s responsibility to de-escalate the situation rather than the officer keeping calm. Also that our entire police system is built on capturing and controlling enslaved people. That‘s not widely known enough. 4mo
MallenNC Also I was behind in reading and am happy to finally be caught up. 4mo
IndoorDame Police are definitely the most prominent example, & black children are taught horrifyingly young about how to act towards police to stay safe. But there are so many more, less life threatening but still completely oppressive situations, where black people are responsible for deescalating white fear. Like being alone on an elevator with someone who is clearly uncomfortable, or being followed by a store clerk who thinks they‘re likely to steal… 4mo
staci.reads @IndoorDame @ravenlee excellent points. I think about how exhausting it must be to continually feel that "responsibility" to a appear non-threatening. And I wonder about the connections beyond the physical. How much mindspace is devoted to trying to appear non threatening to white people in other ways...career advancement, memberships, scholarships, etc. 3mo
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ravenlee
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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I‘m just gonna put this here: “legitimate political discourse.”

#1619GroupRead

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4thhouseontheleft
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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This is addressed at the very end of Chapter 3, and food deserts was the first thing I thought of when I saw this question. Mass production and mechanization of sugar has made it an easy ingredient to put in cheap, processed foods. The kinds of foods that are sometimes the only thing available in lower income Black neighborhoods.

Singout And this, obviously, has an impact on health and then on finances. 4mo
IndoorDame Food deserts are an issue that makes me so angry. I can‘t understand why more people don‘t talk about this, and look for structural solutions to address it. 4mo
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4thhouseontheleft
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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I'll be posting two discussion questions today to catch up! #1619GroupRead

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4thhouseontheleft
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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Helping transport refugees to ESL registration this morning. Hanging out at a local food hall with a golden milk latte and catching up on our #1619GroupRead while I wait for all the testing and class placement to be completed!

Suet624 Thank you for your service to others. 4mo
4thhouseontheleft @Suet624 I enjoy it! Especially these aspects. I'm grateful that I am in a position I can volunteer my time and experience from working in resettlement in the past. 4mo
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Singout
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company

“The more [Blacks] imported, the more British goods were made and exported for trade. The [Black] trade was the foundation of an inexhaustible source of wealth and naval power to this nation.” 1745, Malachy Postletwayt, author of “The African Trade.”

Stomach-turning how completely dehumanizing and imperialist this is.

megnews I highlighted this in my reading too. Very painful to read. 4mo
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4thhouseontheleft
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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This week we begin the discussion of Chapter 3: Sugar by Khalil Jibran Muhammad.

Key Terms: NY Slave Codes, Middle Passage, Haitian Revolution, Triangular Trade, Nat Turner's Rebellion

Additional Resources:
Whitney Plantation: https://www.whitneyplantation.org/history/
The original 1619 Essay: https://tinyurl.com/u6ktmdj4
Muhammad's PBS Interview: https://tinyurl.com/ywum6jxb
The Triangle Trade: https://tinyurl.com/bdd3839p

#1619GroupRead

Singout I found the passing reference to industrialization leading to urbanization, and therefore increased consumption of sugar as a stimulant and meal substitute interesting. 4mo
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Singout This was really interesting: I didn't know as much about sugar as cotton. The part about it being a consequence of the intense move of enslaved people to Louisiana and other places after the transatlantic slave trade was abolished was interesting.
My own tangential but related sugar story: I went in 1992 on an education trip to the Dominican Republic that was in opposition to the “celebrations“ of the arrival of Columbus there in 1492. ⬇

4mo
Singout We went to a sugar plantation where the workers were Haitian: they were kidnapped with the DR and Haitian governments looking the other way, and doing forced labour, paid in tokens they could exchange for necessities but not money they could use to get home. This was all tied to Haitians being seen as inferior to Dominicans because they are (largely) Black rather than Hispanic.
And we could make our own sugar from Canadian beets but don't! Grrr.
4mo
ncsufoxes I didn‘t realize how much sugar was a more profitable crop than cotton or tobacco. In NC when you drive along the eastern coast you still drive by lots of farms (now mainly cotton & peanuts). The discussion of the Middle Passage reminds me a lot of Homegoing. In another book I read fairly recently it discussed the lack of grocery stores in poorer neighborhoods. I wish there would be more places like the Whitney Plantation to inform people of what 4mo
ncsufoxes happened & not glossing over what enslaved people endured or glorifying the past. 4mo
Catsandbooks I am behind, but still reading. I will catch up now that I am home from my travels! 4mo
ravenlee This chapter was short but eye-opening. We focus so much on cotton, and to a lesser extent tobacco, as the “slave crops” (when we learn about it at all), and sugar gets glossed over. I remember a trip, years ago now, driving from Shreveport to the outskirts of Baton Rouge. Less than an hour out of S‘port we were driving through endless fields of sugar cane, four more hours to BR. Now the bloody legacy of that crop colors that memory. 4mo
ravenlee I never really gave any thought to the importance of sugar in the world diet, which just shows the invisibility of everyday items. Sugar/molasses really did change the world; and I appreciated the modern connection to the effects of sugar consumption on the Black diet. It recalled an essay in Hood Feminism about convenience foods and food deserts. 4mo
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4thhouseontheleft
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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I'm behind on my #1619GroupReads posts, so I'll be doubling up over the next day or two.

What did you think of the two poems that precede Chap 3? I didn't recognize the name Eddie Kendricks, so had to look him up before I realized he was part of The Temptations.

The title of the first poem struck me, and reminded me of the long history of hoodoo & conjuring amongst the enslaved, & how it is currently being appropriated by a lot of white folx.

ChaoticMissAdventures I am behind on my reading... We will get there!! 4mo
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4thhouseontheleft @ChaoticMissAdventures feel free to comment in past discussion posts as you catch up! 4mo
IndoorDame I thought the repetition of the word “people” was brilliant. The way the line breaks and the story are it‘s easy to get lost in the flow of the poem and loose track of whether the “people” in the line you‘re reading are the enslavers or the enslaved. Which of course is the point of the repetition - there is no fundamental difference between one “people” and the other 4mo
megnews @IndoorDame I loved that too. It really added momentum to the poem as well and you felt as if you were racing along. I had to go back and reread to make sure I was taking it all in. 4mo
4thhouseontheleft @IndoorDame @megnews I did not think of that point in terms of the repetition, excellent observation! I also went back and read it more than once, it was definitely not a poem I could absorb on the first reading. 4mo
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review
Twainy
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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Pickpick

🎧 If you haven‘t read it, you should. Actually the audiobook is a full cast, I recommend it. There‘s some repetition but I feel the material is important enough to be repeated.

The book takes you from 1619 through 2020. It has facts so at times feels like a history lesson but it also shares stories, poems, music. It‘s a comprehensive history.

Good book. Read it.

⭐️⭐️⭐️⭐️⭐️

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4thhouseontheleft
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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Additional resources for this chapter:

✨ Hood Feminism by Mikki Kendall. I read this last year, and it's fantastic. Goes deeper into some of the topics brought up in this chapter.
✨ Dorothy Roberts TED Talk: https://www.ted.com/speakers/dorothy_roberts
✨ Ain't I A Woman: Black Women and Feminism by bell hooks

#1619GroupRead

Singout That was a really powerful story. No, I hadn‘t heard of her, although I have a bad memory for names: maybe it was in Hood Feminism. That litany of accomplishments is extraordinary. 4mo
Bookish_Gal I‘ve never heard of her. And from what I got, it sounded like a doctor not knowing how to do their job. For whatever reason that may have been. Both parts of her story were painful to hear. 4mo
IndoorDame What a fabulous TED talk! Thank you for sharing! Even just this short talk left me with a more nuanced understanding about race medicine and its origins. 4mo
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4thhouseontheleft
The 1619 Project: A New Origin Story | Nikole Hannah-Jones, The New York Times Company
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Today's discussion question. #1619GroupRead

Butterfinger These laws created classism based on racial heritage which fosters racist views. Race doesn't define a person anymore than sexual orientation defines a person. There is still so many problems because of profiling in our legal system. The sexual violence toward women of color still abounds today. It's in the statistics. The history of transgender issues I read last year talked about officers raping transgender women in order to teach a lesson occurs now. 4mo
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megnews I think miscegenation laws still greatly impact racist thinking and the justice system today. Many police officers and general public fear black men because these laws said they should when, in fact, white men were the ones raping people!!! (This makes me so angry.) I believe enslaved men would have been scared to death to do any of these made up crimes they were alleged to have a propensity for because they would have all known it would have 👇🏻 4mo
megnews 👆🏻been certain death!!! Enslaved women, raped for centuries, unable to decide on their own lives and relationships, promiscuous? You‘ve got to be kidding me!! White women as needing protecting? White men as the saviors of the world?! Please. I get too heated when I think about this. (edited) 4mo
IndoorDame There is still a lot of violence (often emotional, but sometimes physical or sexual) directed today at members of the black community by members of the white community because they are perceived as “too dark” or “too ghetto” and by members of the black community because they are perceived as “too light” or “not black enough”. This kind of thinking is one ugly result of miscegenation laws that we‘re still stuck living with today. People who are👇🏼 4mo
IndoorDame biracial are frequent targets of this type of abuse. 4mo
Singout This reminds me of the chapter in Isabel Wilkerson‘s “Caste” on what she name is as endogamy: not having sex or intermarrying among groups. She compares how this, among many other elements, are part of racism in the United States, India, and Nazi Germany. I appreciate the vivid portrayal in 1619 of the presence of miscegenation. 4mo
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